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Center For Advanced Technology In Education
Mr. Phil Kessinger
European Exploration and Colonization
The Anza Expedition and the Geography of North America
Focus of the Lesson
Students will practice the steps of historical inquiry and historical geography by studying select geographic features and human interactions using primary and secondary source documents concerning the Spanish Colonizing Expedition, led by Juan Bautista de Anza, to San Francisco, 1775-76.
(NCSS 3.i See Lesson Evaluation Below) As a result of doing this lesson students will learn about regions in the historic Western physical landscape and the indigenous people encountered by Anza and the Spanish Colonizing Expedition 1775-76.
(NCSS 2.d See Lesson Evaluation Below) As a result of doing this lesson students will practice the steps of historical inquiry using a variety of sources including primary and secondary sources and spatial images (maps).
(NCSS 3.h See Lesson Evaluation Below) Students will also interpret the value of a learned historical understanding of continuity and change about people, places, and the environment in North America.
Projected Time Needed
US History, World History, and Geography Textbooks, World Atlas
School library access to supporting secondary sources and on-line databases of supporting information.
Computer lab, 15 or more stations,with words processing software and Internet access
Use of Web de Anza
Students will develop initial preliminary background understanding using social studies textbooks and library print and on-line sources. After researching secondary sources, students will use Web de Anza extensively, particularly focusing on primary source diaries written separately by Juan Bautista de Anza and Pedro Font on the Spanish Colonizing Expedition of 1775-76 t Alta California.Web de Anza http://anza.uoregon.edu
Use of Scholars-Consultants (optional)
On-line sources for scholars/consultants related to the Anza National Historic Trail and indigenous cultures may be used related to National Park Service Anza NHT, Tumacacori National Park, Mission Dolores in San Francisco, and indigenous cultures of Chumash, Museum of Natural History, at Santa Barbara, CaliforniaTumacacori http://www.nps.gov/juba/
Mission Dolores http://www.sfarchdiocese.org/parishes/dolores.html
Museum of Natural History http://www.sbnature.org/
Teacher /Student Activities
1. Introduce this lesson to a class with the following task assigned to small groups of students (2-3) cooperatively working together with the idea that they are going to create their own web pages on a schools server related to their historical study of European Exploration and Colonization in North America.
The essential teacher task is to introduce to students that they are going to create student produced text, images, and interactive processes to create their own web pages on "The Anza Expedition and The Geography of North America". The general format of the lesson is:"By studying classroom texts/atlases, library print and on-line information, and Web de Anza on-line resources, what can student teams learn about the interaction of the (Spanish) Anza Colonial Expedition with the indigenous people and/ or physical landscape at three distinct separate locations along the 1849 miles Anza Historic Trail between present day Tumacacori, Arizona and San Francisco, California. These three regions of study should be each separated by at approximately 150 miles (straight line)"
"With acquired research information, students should describe and document their understanding of Anza's Colonizing Expedition historic experiences, in terms of the physical landscape and people as they traveled. Students should estimate what they think the Spanish Colonial governments learned from Anza's Colonizing Expedition and reflect on the continuity and changes in human settlement and the environment since Anza's Colonizing Expedition and what is valuable to learn from this understanding today."
Summary of Specific Tasks for Student Study of the Anza Colonizing ExpeditionI. Student study of print and on-line background/overview information related to Spanish Colonial Exploration and Colonization in general and both Anza Expedition in particular.
2. Student study groups identify three specific locations on the Anza Trail where they think one can learn significant information about the historic physical landscape and the indigenous cultures the Anza Colonizing Expedition encountered.
3. Students collect and document research information related to this historical inquiry in written notes and word processing form, including landscape images and maps to use later in constructing student (small group) web pages on European Exploration and Colonization of North America as based on the Anza Colonizing Expedition, 1775-76. See Web de Anza links:Anza Diary 1774 http://anza.uoregon.edu/anza74.html
Anza Diary 1775-76 http://anza.uoregon.edu/anza76.html
Font (Expanded) Diary 1775-76 http://anza.uoregon.edu/fontex.html
4. Based on small group student research, review, edit, and construct a narrative discussion of three to five pages with word processing on what a student group interprets as important about:A. Specific details, e.g. examples, and conclusions the Anza Colonizing Expedition learned about the physical landscape and/or people at three separate locations on Anza route.
B. What did the Spanish Colonial government likely learn and concluded from Anza's Colonizing Expedition. Thus, what were the consequences of this learning for Spain, indigenous cultures encountered, and human settlement in North America.
C. What can one learn about continuity and change of human interactions and the physical landscape in western North America since Anza's Colonizing Expedition and what does this learning mean for people today and the future .
5. Students design a web page based on documented research and narrative construction (#4 above) with text, images, and www links in their project on"The Anza Expeditions and the Geography of North America".
See Teacher/Student Activities
Evaluation of Student Learning
Students will be evaluated by written short answer discussion and separate essay questions. In addition, students as a small group, will be evaluated on a class presentation of their Anza web pages project as well as the installation of their web pages on school server.
Evaluation of Lesson
(Lesson Objective based on NCSS High School Standard 3.i See below.) As a result of doing this lesson students will learn about three regions in the historic Western physical landscape and the indigenous people encountered by Anza and the Spanish Colonizing Expedition 1775-76.
Assess the degree to which student task groups clearly identified three separate regions on the Anza trail with adequate supporting detail in terms of describing landscape characteristics which reflect their understanding of physical regions identified.
Assess the degree to which student task groups clearly identified, e.g. cultural attributes or role in Expedition, of at least one distinct indigenous cultural group encountered on the Anza Expedition.
(Lesson Objective based on NCSS High School Standard 2.d See below.) As a result of doing this lesson students will practice the steps of historical inquiry using a variety of sources including primary and secondary sources and spatial images (maps).
Assess the degree to which students used and document their research with primary and secondary sources and maps for the basis of a narrative about the Anza Expedition in terms of the land and people at three locations on Anza trail.
(Lesson Objective based on NCSS High School Standard 3.h See Below) Students will also interpret the value of a learned historical understanding of continuity and change about people, places, and the environment in North America.
Assess the degree to which students historical interpretation reflects the Spanish cultural influence on the landscape of Western America, the reduced status of indigenous people on the land, and the alteration of the environment since Anza's Colonizing Expedition with advent of large diverse human settlements, and the altered physical environment compared to the historical era of Anza.
Content Standards (National Council for The Social Studies (NCSS): High School Performance Expectations)
Time, Continuity, and Change II- (d)d. systematically employ processes of critical historical inquiry to reconstruct and reinterpret the past, such as using a variety of sources and checking their credibility, validating and weighing evidence for claims, and searching for causality
People, Places, and Environment III- (h) (i)h. examine, interpret, and analyze physical and cultural patterns and their interactions, such as land use, settlement patterns, cultural transmission of customs and ideas, and ecosystem changes.
i. describe and assess ways that historical events have been influenced by, and have influenced, physical and human geographic factors in local, regional, national, and global settings;
Oregon StandardsU.S. History &endash; Understand and interpret relationships in history, including chronology, cause and effect, and continuity over time.
World History &endash; Interpret and represent chronological relationships and patterns of change and continuity in world history.
World History &endash; Understand the importance and lasting influence of significant eras, cultures, issues, events, and developments in world history.
Geography &endash; Locate places and explain geographic information or relationships by reading, interpreting, and preparing maps and other geographic representations.
Geography &endash; Identify and explain physical and human characteristics of places and regions, the processes that have shaped them, and their geographic significance
Geography Standards (National)-Geography Standard 17 - How To Apply Geography To Interpret The Past (Grades 9-12)
c. Analyze the ways in which physical and human features have influenced the evolution of significant historic events and movements...(e.g. imperialism, colonization, and decolonization).