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Web de Anza

 

School Name

Eugene International High School, Eugene, Oregon

Teacher Name

Howard Yank, Rebecca Bair, proofing and translating assistance from Joshua Hamill

Grade

 

Unit Name

Spanish Colonials Encounter Quechan Culture

 

Lesson Name

 

Lesson Number

Part I-VII

Focus of the Lesson

Students will learn about Spanish colonial encounters with indigeneous people (Quechan) at the Yuma Crossing (Arizona). Central to this student lesson in historical inquiry will be the use of primary sources from the Anza expeditions of the 1770s.

Objectives

  1. To apply key concepts such as time, chronology, causality, change and conflict to explain and analyze historical change. 
  2. To employ processes of critical historical inquiry to reconstruct and interpret the past. 
  3. To use and synthesize information from maps and globes. 
  4. To describe ways that historical events have been influenced by, and have influenced, physical and human geographic factors.
  5. To work independently to accomplish goals.  
  6. To explain conditions, actions, and motivations that contribute to conflict and cooperation within and among nations (peoples).
  7. To use technology tools to enhance learning, increase productivity, and promote creativity.
  8. To use technology to locate, evaluate, and collect information from a variety of sources.

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Projected Time Needed

 

Materials/Technology Needed

  1. Web de Anza/Internet Access
  2. Mark Santiago, Massacre at the Yuma Crossing: Spanish Relations With The Quechans, 1779-1782. (The University of Arizona Press. 1998)

Use of Web de Anza

 

Use of Scholars-Consultants (optional)

 

Teacher Activities

(See italics in Student Activities)

 

Student Activities

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Lessons

Part I

 

Go to the "Welcome to Web de Anza" page (http://Anza.uoregon.edu) and read introduction to the site.

 

1. With what period in United States history does the information in this site coincide?

Go to the "Historical Context" page in this site.

2. Make a list of the various geographical reference points mentioned here. (e.g., The Gila and the Colorado rivers)

3. Go to the Atlas and trace the expedition's route from northern Sonora to San Francisco. How many of the points you noted in 'a' can you find?

4. What do you think might have been the most difficult phase of these journeys related to this geography / topography based on what you know about this area today. What information don't you have which would be helpful in answering this question? (Where could you find it?)

 

Go back to Historical Context

 

5. What do you think were the main challenges or impediments to the success of these expeditions based on this brief overview?

6. According to this account, how could you argue that native peoples presented both a help and a hindrance to the expeditions?

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Part II

 

Go to the de Anza diary entry for Nov. 27, 1775:

 

1. How does de Anza characterize the Yuma "captain"?

2. What assistance is offered by Salvador Palma, and what does he want in return?

3. Why are the Yuma desirous of Spanish presence? Given that this account comes from the Spanish, might de Anza's viewpoint be skewed? Explain.

 

Read the entry for the following day.

 

4a. What do the Yuma do to validate de Anza's account of the captain's friendliness?

4b. What challenge did the Colorado River/Yuma Crossing present to the Spanish?

5. What "American" tradition, which coincidentally falls in this same week, seems to be reenacted here between the Yuma and the Spanish? In your opinion are the natives just being gracious to the newcomers, or do they have substantial motives for being so kind. Explain.

6. How do you think that an account of these two days by Salvador Palma might differ from that of de Anza? Explain.

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Extra Credit!

Historical Fiction:

 

Write two diary entries for Nov. 27th and 28th about these same events from the pen of Salvador Palma or another member of the Yuma tribe.

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Part III

 

Several of the following assignments will be based on readings from the book by Mark Santiago, Massacre at the Yuma Crossing:Spanish relations with the Quechans 1779 - 1782. (The University of Arizona Press. 1998)

 

Read excerpts from Santiago (p 3- 5 and p10 - 16) [Reading A} about the time period just before the Anza expedition, presenting the first lasting encounter between the Yuma (also called Quechan) and the Spanish in 1771.

 

1. Based on the reading, compare Father Garces and Fray Bartolome de las Casas of the earlier period of Spanish settlement (conquest) in the Americas. What are some similarities and/or differences that you see in their attitudes towards indigenous people.

 

(Note: Our curriculum includes a previous study of the encounter between Spanish and natives in the early 16th century, including a study of the "myth" of the "Black Legend" and of the debate about treatment of the natives before the Spanish Court between Sepulveda and De Las Casas.)

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2. What were the motives of both the Quechan and the Spanish that encouraged a friendly initial relationship between Palma and Garcés? Are these motives different than the ones that you read about in Juan Bautista de Anza's diary entries? Explain.

3. What, specifically is the Yuma Crossing? What makes it such a significant geographical point for both the Indian populations and the Spanish?

4. The Indian groups of the Colorado and Gila River regions were aware of the Spanish long before the encounter between Garces and Palma. What are some of the effects that the Spanish were already having on:

a. the area's economy

b. the relationships between tribes.

______________________

 

Part IV (Español)

 

Coronel de Anza regresa al Crucero Yuma en rumbo a México

 

A. El maestro reparte Folio 120 del diario de Anza a la clase (versión español), con las instrucciones a continuación:

(Esta actividad se hace en clase, no en la computadora(ordenadora) para que los alumnos no dependan de la versión en inglés.)

En parejas favor de leer este fragmento del diario de Anza que se trata de su viaje de regreso de Alta California a México, cuando llegan de nuevo al crucero de los ríos Colorado y Gila, "El Crucero Yuma".

 

1. Hacer una lista de palabras "arcaicos" encontrados aquí, o sea, palabras cuya ortografía ha cambiado en los siglos desde entonces. Por ejemplo: antteriormentte [anteriormente].

2. ¿Cómo le pareció a de Anza el estado de humor de la gente cerca de las "Rancherías", las indígenas?

3. ¿Quién estaba allí para saludarles a la llegada?

4. ¿Con qué propósitos fue enviado por el Virrey ("Viceroy", el encargado del Rey de España en México) a esta región el Padre Fray Thomas Eziarc? (indicación: "Catequismo de las Naciones" refiere a la conversión al cristianismo a las tribus indígenas)

5. ¿Cuál jefe de los Yuma estaba con el Padre Eziarc?

6. ¿Según la perspectiva de de Anza, ha tenido éxito el Padre Eziarc?

7. De Anza apunta que "ottras Naciones aliadas a la Yuma" han pedido ("solicittado") el establecimiento del cristianismo también. En una previa lección ustedes han leído de otros motivos de los tribus para querer la presencia de los españoles. ¿Por qué no menciona de Anza los demás motivos de los 'indios' aquí? A su parecer puede tener consecuencias graves el faltar considerarlos? Deben incluir un buen razonamiento.

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La clase puede discutir y comparar sus respuestas. El profesor debe subrayar que si los españoles no toman en cuenta los motivos materialísticos de los Yuma, pueden damnificarlos sin darse cuenta, con malas consecuencias. Los estudiantes pueden pensar en situaciones similares en sus propias vidas para entenderlo bien. Por ejemplo si un amigo invita a su amiga a una fiesta con el propósito de gozar del ambiente y la música, sin mencionar que quiere presentarla a un amigo suyo, la amiga puede venir, trayendo su novio, anulando el deseo original de su amigo.

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Part IV (continuado)

 

B. El maestro introduce el diario de Padre Font, quien acompaña a de Anza, del día 12 de mayo, de 1776 - el día siguiente. La clase toma turnos en leerlo oralmente hasta el punto en que el capitán Palma propone ir con los españoles a México.

 

La clase puede pensar en los varios motivos de Palma para querer ir con ellos a ver al Virrey, escribiéndolos en la pizarra. La clase debe saber que al principio de Anza no estaba convencido que sería una buena idea (vea el diario del día anterior de Padre Font - "...a primera vista mostró alguna repugnancia en llevarlo" ).

 

Aparentemente la conversación que se llevó a cabo "en lo interior de la casa" entre el Padre Fr. Thomas, Anza, Palma, y unos "tres o quatro viejos" miembros de la tribu resultó en el acuerdo de que Palma y dos compañeros podían acompañar la expedición a México.

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Part IV (continuado)

 

C. Minidramas

 

El profe facilita dividir la clase en grupos de trabajo. Cada grupo prepara un minidrama, simulando la discusión que tuvieron los personajes adentro de la casa sobre el propósito de Salvador Palma. Los papeles pueden ser:

 

Coronel Anza - El jefe de la expedición tiene dudas sobre el "bien estar" de la tribu durante una ausencia prolongada de Palma, y si se quedan los indígenas aliados con los españoles sin la presencia de la persona quien efectivamente se convirtió en el "portavoz" de los españoles.

 

Padre Font - El padre piensa que si Palma es recibido con honores por el Virrey en México puede solidificar la alianza de los Quechan con España. Pero teme de que si Palma recibe muchas cosas en México puede alzar las esperanzas del resto de la tribu a su regreso. Sería mas difícil complacerlos después.

 

Salvador Palma - Quiere ir para concretar la alianza con los forasteros (Españoles) y para tal vez enriquecerle a si mismo. El viaje puede mejorar además su posición como líder en su tribu y la estima hacia su "poder de soñar" - (Vea el fragmento pertinente de la obra de Mark Santiago en una lección.

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Viejo #1 - Apoya el propósito de Palma y quiere acompañarlo.

 

Viejo #2 - No tiene mucha confianza en los españoles y busca garantías sobre la seguridad de Palma.

 

Viejo #3 - Ha estado en contra de la alianza con los españoles. Sin embargo puede apoyar el propósito para poder aprovechar de la ausencia de Palma para cambiar la política de la tribu hacia los españoles.

 

Cada grupo ensaya una discusión y luego la presenta al resto de la clase. El maestro puede facilitar el coloquio y después preguntar si las conversaciones les parecieron auténticos. Otras salidas pueden tratar con qué hubiera pasado si Palma no habría ido a México, etc.

 

D. Cruzando el río, el 13 de mayo, 1776

 

El maestro reparte copias del Diario de Font en dos versiones:

 

English (not expanded) and Spanish, expanded version.

 

La clase lee la versión inglés primero para tener una idea de los acontecimientos principales.

 

Luego la clase, de parejas, lee la versión en español (expanded), haciendo una lista de información interesante en la segunda que no está en la versión inglés.

 

Esta lista es compartida y comparada en la pizarra.

 

Entonces las parejas se ponen a contestar las preguntas a continuación:

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1. ¿Qué hicieron los Yuma para ayudar a los españoles?

 

2. ¿Qué hizo Palma que mostró sus características esenciales para un buen líder?

 

3. Explica el contratiempo que les pasó.

 

4. ¿Cómo intentó Padre Font medir el ancho del río? ¿Funcionó?

 

5. Dado lo anterior, ¿Cómo logró Padre Font estimar su ancho? ¿A su parecer fue este método más exacta que el tratar de medirlo, tirando una pelota? (Favor de incluir su razonamiento)

 

extra crédito:

 

6. ¿Cómo subrayó lo que sucedió el 13 de mayo la importancia del crucero Yuma y la ayuda de los indios para los españoles?

 

7. Hacer una ilustración de algo que aconteció este día.

 

(Part IV -English Translation)

 

Part IV: Colonel de Anza returns to the Yuma Crossing en route to Mexico.

 

A. The teacher will hand out page 120 from the de Anza diary to the class (Spanish version), along with the following instructions:

 

(Note: This activity is done in class with handouts from the web-site as stipulate in order that students don't rely on the English version.)

 

In pairs please read this fragment from the de Anza diary that deals with his return trip from California to Mexico, when they return again to the crossing of the Colorado and Gila rivers, "the Yuma Crossing".

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1. Make a list of "archaic" words that you find -- words where the spelling has changed in the centuries since that time. For instance, antteriormente [anteriormente].

 

2. How did de Anza view the mood of the indigenous people near to the "rancherías"?

 

3. Who was there to greet them upon their arrival?

 

4. For what purposes was Padre Fray Thomas Eziarc sent to this region by the Virrey ("Viceroy", the representative of the King of Spain in Mexico)?

 

5. Which Yuma chief was with Padre Eziarc?

 

6. According to de Anza's perspective, had Padre Eziarc been successful?

 

7. De Anza notes that "other nations allied with the Yuma" had requested ("solicittado") the establishment of Christianity as well. In a previous lesson you have read about other motives that the tribes had for wanting the Spaniards to be among them. Why doesn't de Anza mention these other motives of the 'Indians' here? In your viewpoint, could there be serious consequences for failing to consider them? Be sure to include a well reasoned argument.

 

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The class can discuss and share their answers. The teacher should emphasize that if the Spaniards did not take into consideration the materialistic motives of the Yuma Indians, they could harm them without realizing it, with grave consequences. The students can think of similar situations in their own lives to better understand this. For example, if someone invites a female friend to come to a party to have a good time and enjoy the music, but fails to mention that he wants to introduce her to a friend of his, she might come and bring a date with her, spoiling her friend's original plan.

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B. The teacher introduces the diary of Padre Font, who accompanied de Anza, from the date of May 12, 1776 -- the next day. The class should take turns reading out loud up to the point where Captain Palma proposes going with the Spaniards to Mexico.

 

The class can think about Palma's different motives for wanting to go with them to see the Viceroy, and the students should then write these on the chalkboard. The class should know that in the beginning de Anza wasn't convinced that it would be a good idea (see Padre Font's diary entry from the previous day -- "at first sight he showed a certain repugnance- reluctance- to take him").

 

Apparently the conversation that took place in "the interior of the house" between Padre Fray Thomas, de Anza, Palma, and some "three or four tribal elders" resulted in an agreement that Palma and two companions could accompany the expedition to Mexico.

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C. Skits

 

The teacher should divide the class into work groups of six people. Each group will prepare a skit, simulating the discussion that took place between the people inside of the house regarding the proposal of Salvador Palma. The roles for each group's skit can be as follows:

 

Colonel de Anza -- The leader of the expedition has doubts about the well being of the tribe during a prolonged absence by Palma, and if the Indians will remain allied with the Spaniards without the presence of the person that, in effect, had become the "spokesman" for the Spaniards.

 

Padre Font -- The Padre thinks that if Palma is received with honors by the Viceroy in Mexico, it might solidify the alliance between the Quechan and Spain. But he fears that if Palma receives too much in Mexico it might raise the hopes of the rest of the tribe upon his return. It would be much more difficult to placate them afterwards.

 

Salvador Palma -- He wants to go in order to strengthen the alliance with the travelers (the Spaniards) and also perhaps to become more rich himself. The trip could improve his position as leader of the tribe and his standing regarding his "ability to dream" -- Teacher note: See the pertinent excerpt from the writing of Mark Santiago from Part VI.

 

Elder #1 -- Supports Palma's proposal and wants to accompany him.

 

Elder #2 -- He doesn't have much confidence in the Spaniards and seeks assurances regarding the safety of Palma.

 

Elder #3 -- He has been opposed to the alliance with the Spaniards. Nonetheless, he can support the proposal in order to take advantage of Palma's absence and thus try to change the tribe's policy toward the Spaniards.

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Each group should prepare the skit and then present it to the rest of the class. The teacher can facilitate the presentations, and then ask the class if the conversations seemed authentic. Other possibilities can deal with what might have happened if Palma did not go to Mexico, etc.

 

D. Crossing the river, May 13, 1776

 

The teacher should hand out copies of Font's diary in two versions: English

(not expanded) and Spanish, (expanded version).

 

The class should read the English version first to get an idea of the main events.

 

In pairs, the students should read the Spanish (extended) version, making a list of interesting information from this version that is not in the English version.

 

This list should then be shared and compared on the chalkboard.

 

Next, the pairs will begin to answer the following questions:

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1. What did the Yuma Indians do to help the Spaniards?

2. What did Palma do that demonstrated his essential characteristics as a leader?

3. Explain the mishaps that took place.

4. How did Padre Font try to measure the width of the river? Did this method work?

5. Given the previous question, how did he finally figure out the width? Was this method more accurate than trying to measure it by throwing a ball? (please include your reasoning)

extra credit:

6. How did the events of May 13th highlight the importance of the Yuma crossing as well as the importance of the Indians helping the Spaniards?

7. Make an illustration of one of the events that took place that day.

____________________

 

Part V (English)

 

Go to http://dizzy.library.Arizona.edu/aladn/list/mccarty/massacre.htm

 

Read the account of the massacre of Spanish by the Yuma in 1781, six years after the account from November 1775, the original Anza expedition.

 

1. Why would putting a settlement of pioneers beyond the "frontier" as Commandant of the northern provinces, Teodoro de Croix had done be a mistake?

 

2. What events were taking place when the battle started?

 

3. What does Father Barreneche do during the battle which gives an indication of the weaponry of the Yuma?

 

4. Why did Fathers Barreneche and Garcés survive as long as they did?

 

5. What explanation did Father Garcés give for the uprising?

 

6. Make a list of the events that you think may have transpired between the first, friendly encounters of 1775 and the uprising of 1781 to provoke antagonism on the part of the Yuma. (i.e., What real "sins" may have the Spanish committed?)

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Extra Credit (2)

 

Make an investigation into the nature of mission life that may have led to conflicts like this. (Yuma 1781, San Diego Mission Nov. 1775) Give examples which can explain these events. What does your investigation reveal about the role of priests in mission society? (Remember what happened to Fathers Barreneche and Garcés during the Yuma Massacre.) Be sure to indicate where you got your information.

 

 

PART VI

 

To find out what turned a friendly encounter into an uprising and revolt, read the selected excerpts from Mark Santiago's The Massacre at the Yuma Crossing and respond to the following questions.

 

(p 26 - 29 and p 36 - 38) {Reading B}

 

1. Would you say that Palma had unified his people behind the cause of the Spanish?

2. According to this passage, what are some of the reasons that the Christians were seen by some of the Quechans to be a hindrance to their survival?

3. What leaders of the Quechans opposed Christian doctrine?

Now go to Font's diary of 11/27/75 on Web de Anza (expanded version) and read this primary account.

1. Can you gather anything regarding Font's point of view on Palma's leadership position and his ability to control his people? What does "Chief" Pablo's wavering position on Spanish presence indicate about the tenuous nature of Palma's authority in the tribe?

___________

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Part VI (continued)

 

Mark Santiago p.44-47[reading C]

It is decided that Palma will make a trip with Anza to Mexico City to see the Viceroy Bucarelli. (See Part IV lesson in Spanish and English translation.) Read pages 44 - 47 about Palma's meeting with the viceroy and answer the following questions.

 

1. Based on the excerpt, why did Salvador Palma make the long trip to Mexico City?

What specifically did he ask for, and what was he willing to offer in return?

 

2. Did Anza think that this was a good idea? What were some of the recommendations that Anza made for a settlement in this area?

3. What does the author suggest as to the outcome of both Palma's request and Anza's recommendations?

 

Class discussion can include the idea that force was available for earlier conquests, but in this period force was not seen to be necessary .(Spanish didn't need Indian labor, only help crossing the river.) The option of using force was not viable considering the lack of military personnel available at this time due to other threats in various parts of the Spanish Empire.

________________

Part VI (continued)

 

After Palma's visit to the viceroy, he returned home with extravagant clothing and beads which proved to his village again the wealth of the Spanish. In February of 1777 a letter from Caballero de Croix wrote a letter to the head of the Franciscan missions to announce the start of the "Yuma Project"

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Santiago Reading from p 60 - 62 (top) 70 - 72 [Reading D]

 

1. What can you gather about the timing of this expedition? Was it undertaken in a timely manner? How do you think this time-lag might have affected the Yuma people?

 

2. How many people were sent to create the mission settlement that was asked for by Palma and Anza? Would you say that this settlement was being started under excellent conditions? Why/Why not?

 

 

3. When the Spanish mission expedition arrived to start the Yuma project, what kind of a welcoming did they receive? Did the arrival meet the expectations of either the missionaries or the Quechan people?

 

4. Consider what you read earlier on the De Anza website in Font's Diary of November 27, 1775, and also what you've just read regarding Salvador Palma's authority over his people. Were Font's suspicions accurate? Discuss how Garcés' writings supports Font's view.

______________

 

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Part VII

 

Read CH 8, p 112-126 from Massacre at the Yuma Crossing. [insert Reading E]

 

Discuss how this account "fills in" what the previous reading on the Massacre left out. Go over logistics of the various groups during the attack.

In Class:

 

1. Discuss Palma's role in the massacre. What side did he eventually take? Why?

 

2. Did Father Garcés seem surprised by the eventual attack on the Spanish? Do you think that there was a strategic reasoning behind the decision to kill or save Garcés? Why were Palma's orders countermanded?

 

Assignment: Write a short piece of historical fiction from the point of view of Palmaor Father Garces relating the events of the massacre. Imagine what they must have been thinking and feeling while incorporating the facts that you have read about.

\Final Class Discussion on implications for future of the Spanish empire. What if the Spanish settlement had succeeded? How might that have affected the Spanish development (hold) on California and the Southwest? Might the outcome of the Mexican-American war have been different? If so, how might that have affected the western expansion of the U.S. ?

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Evaluation of Student Learning

 

Evaluation of Lesson 

 

Content Standards (Note: Links below go to listed National Council for the Social Studies curriculum standard reflected in this lesson ).

High School Performance Expectations
Time, Continuity, and Change II- (d)

People, Places, and Environment III- (b) (i)

Individual Deveplopment and Identity IV- (h)

Individuals, Groups, and Institutions V- (h)

Power, Authority, and Governance VI- (f)

Science, Technology, and Society VIII-(b) (e)

Other

  

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Web de Anza On-Line Learning Community
Center for Advanced Technology In Education
Eugene, Oregon
 
Home Page
 
Phil Kessinger
Content Coordinator
November 28, 2000
 
emc@pond.net
 
*Note: Web de Anza resources contain an extensive collection of primary and secondary historical sources on the Spanish Colonial era of Juan Bautistia de Anza in North America, 1750-1800. We encourage you to visit the main Web de Anza site at http://anza.uoregon.edu and explore.