document is the diary of Lieutenant Colonel Juan Bautista de
Anza while on a military expedition to find and destroy Cuchanec
Comanche Chief Cuerno Verde (Green Horn), who had been exacting
terrible destruction on the Spanish settlements of New Mexico.
The expedition left Santa Fe with 600 men on August 15, 1779.
Joined a few days later by 200 Yutas (Utes) and Apaches, the
expedition numbered 800 men and close to 2500 horses. Following
a route unfamiliar to the Comanches and traveling at night by
the light of the full moon across the broad San Luis Valley,
Anza was able to surprise Cuerno Verde on the front range of
the Great Plains near present-day Rye, Colorado. In the ensuing
battle, Cuerno Verde, his son, and four other chiefs were killed
while the Spaniards sustained only a couple of minor wounds.
As they returned to Santa Fe on September 10, 1779, the stage
was now set for the establishment of peace between the Spaniards
and the warring Comanches and Utes. Because of the battle and
the peace which followed, three mountains of Colorado today
bear the names of the leaders of the combatants. A mountain
west of Rye, Colorado, called Green Horn Mountain, rises above
12,000 feet. One east of Mineral Hot Springs and another east
of the town of San Luis are named in honor of Juan Bautista
de Anza and rise above 13,000 feet.